About the global governance of cyberspace and Internet

2 min

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States are the strongest actors in cyber space and compete with each other. But, Cyber space enables new actors within the nation-state and / or independent of the nation-state. Individuals can be organized worldwide in cyber space regardless of their national identity. These emerging organizations can do hacktivism in order to express their reactions to nation-states on different topics. Individuals such as Edward Snowden and Julian Assange can open the information they obtain through physical means to the public through cyber space, leading to questioning the commitment to nation-states. That's why; NATO published the Tallinn Manual to regulate competition which defines the legal framework for cyber warfare. Edward Snowden's NSA document leaks reminded that tighter checks should be made over the Internet in Russia because for the Kremlin, the internet is a foreign policy tool. For example, It is claimed that Russia intervened in the US presidential elections on 8 November 2016 by cyber methods. These developments, "information wars" and "influence operations / influence spying" are important issues in the intelligence world. We can associate the operations carried out by Russia with cyber tools to influence the elections of the rival countries or political decision processes with the cult of 'active measures', inherited from the KGB and identified with the Cold War era. The Russian Federation's alleged cyber-attacks against Estonia in 2007, Georgia and Lithuania in 2008 and Kyrgyzstan in 2009, after dropping a Russian plane that violated Turkish airspace, started cyber-attacks against Turkey by the Russian Federation is an example. In particular, transnational companies such as Google, Facebook and Twitter pose a threat to digital sovereignty and national security. As the transnational risk increases, the management of the cyber space becomes important. States want to control information such as media regulation, licensing regimes, content removal, slander and libel laws, and content filtering. For example, in 2011, in Egypt and Libya, all Internet access was blocked for a short time during the Arab Spring. Governments now shape and restrict access to information, freedom of expression and cyberspace, this is called norm regression. Today there are more than thirty cyber authority governments. However, users still have the right to access content, services and applications on the internet "network neutrality". That's why, Brazil has become a cyber-crime paradise for hackers who specialize in identity and data theft and credit card fraud. According to the data of the British company "mi2g", which followed the crimes committed on the Internet, last year, the 10 most active groups in Internet crime were Brazilian. However, this people or organizations can be caught thanks to internet police, Internet police are used especially in intelligence. Since this intelligence will take shape in the interests of the states, the security of information in the global cyber space is expected to be provided by institutions of United Nations.

As a result, there are on the one hand, the place of conventional security understanding in the international system, whose borders are clear and which is largely controlled by international legal norms. On the other hand, cyber space with uncertain boundaries and a new area of security is emerging where the attack is much simpler and less costly than defending.

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