UN sanctions analysis on Somalia, Sudan and South Africa

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The United Nations has sanctions to protect international peace and security. These could be economic and commercial sanctions or arms embargo, travel restrictions. Among the aims of the United Nations is to limit terrorism, protect human rights and prevent the spread of weapons. Since 1966, the United Nations has made several sanctions from to Somalia, Sudan and South Africa. I want to make a positive criticism of these sanctions.

Firstly, the lack of the institutional structure of the state in Somalia is the source of a fundamental problem such as the emergence of war barons and terrorist organizations that govern the fate of the society in the country. The main problem in Somalia is the difficulties experienced in institutionally restructuring and functionalizing the state. For example, the authority gap that emerged with the collapse of the central government in 1991 caused terrorist organizations such as Al-Shabab to find a comfortable field of activity in the country. That's why the Security Council first imposed an arms embargo on Somalia in 1992. Also, if we set out in the light of this information’s, I would especially like to mention AMISOM. The African Union Somalia Mission (AMISOM) has been set up to fight against the Al-Shabab Terrorist Organization, restore stability in the country and train security forces. Somalia officials from AMISOM have asked Somalia to take all necessary measures to prevent exports and imports of charcoal because the income earned by Al-Shabab organization only from charcoal is at least $10 million per year that's why a charcoal ban was introduced.

Secondly, conflicts have been taking place in the Darfur region in the west of Sudan since 2003, and the region is facing a serious humanitarian crisis. The Darfur region is moving away from stability due to the intense armed clashes between tribes and the Sudanese army and rebel groups. That’s why, UNAMID, which includes thousands of soldiers, security forces and officers from various countries, has been working in Darfur since 2007. But The Security Council first imposed an arms embargo on all non-governmental organizations and individuals operating in Darfur in 2004. In 2010, this decision was further strengthened because in the Darfur region, the "Justice and Equality", "Sudan Liberation Movement" and "Sudan People's Liberation Army" movements have been fighting against the government since 2003.

Thirdly, the official state policy of South Africa between 1948 and 1994 was governed by a system that advocated racial discrimination ''Apartheid regime''. Many countries against the Apartheid regime adopted the United Nations' trade sanctions and withdrew their investments from South Africa. South Africa faced economic difficulties and many domestic actors could not cope with the course of the economic situation and asked for political change. In 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected President of South Africa and he made important advances in achieving the democratic transition.

As a result, the purpose of the sanctions is to achieve a peace goal set by the Security Council, without the need to use force by putting pressure on a state or an entity. We see that the various sanctions that the United Nations made to Somalia, Sudan and South Africa have positive results.

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